Haemorrhoids and anal fissures

What are Haemorrhoids?

Haemorrhoids are a bothersome and painful problem that many people suffer from.

They are small vascular cushions that are located near the anus that dilate due to strain and tissue laxity until they eventually burst and begin bleeding.

There are two types of haemorrhoids:

  • internal: they form inside the body at the level of the anal sphincters
  • external: they form subcutaneously near the sphincters and are recognized by their typical red-blue colour

Both types are bothersome and uncomfortable for those who suffer from them.

You normally know that you have haemorrhoids when you feel discomfort when sitting down, a gesture that can sometimes lead to bleeding and cause itching.

The appearance of haemorrhoids greatly depends on the tone of the veins, intestinal regularity, the weight of the bowels and internal organs, as is the case for pregnant women, but nutrition also plays an important role.

Foods like chocolate, pepper, chilli peppers or spicy dishes should be avoided if you suffer from haemorrhoids.

What are anal fissures?

Anal fissures are lacerations of the skin around the anus.

Besides being a rather painful and bothersome phenomenon, they are difficult to treat.

Anal fissures also have a high likelihood of recurrence.

Most anal fissures are caused by excessive stretching of the anus. The skin therefore can tear and then break. This occurs especially in people who suffer from chronic constipation, where the stool can be excessively large and hard.

If the fissures are not particularly extensive and defecation is regular, they may heal spontaneously within a few days. The problem however becomes chronic when lacerations recur in the same area and the wound is not allowed to heal.

The most obvious symptom of anal fissures is the intense pain experienced during bowel movements. Another characteristic symptom of anal fissures is the appearance of bright red blood around the faecal mass or on toilet paper.

An excessively sedentary lifestyle, pregnancy, childbirth, occupations where a person is required to stand for long periods of time and an incorrect diet are all considered conditions that can trigger anal fissures or make them worse.

Specific medical devices that help in the symptomatic treatment of both internal and external haemorrhoids and anal fissures can be purchased in the pharmacy.

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